Frank Mackey’s historical study of the Black experience in Montreal, “Done with Slavery: The Black Fact in Montreal, 1760-1840”, includes photographs of individuals who had both Black and Native ancestry.

Colin A. Thomson’s book, “Blacks in Deep Snow: Black Pioneers in Canada”, (J.M. Dent, 1979) includes descriptions and photos of Blacks living and working with Native people.  There is a timeline of Black history in Canada at the end of the book.  Educated at the University of Sasktchewan and the University of Alberta, Mr. Thomson has spoken about the Black experience in Canada to groups across the country, and his articles have appeared in numerous magazines and journals.  The book is available new and used on Amazon here.

George Bonga, son of Pierre Bonga and his Indian wife
Étienne Bonga of mixed Black and Native heritage
Interpreter David Mills from Alberta (2nd from the right) was Black and Blackfoot (ca. 1896)


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